Information and communication technology (ICT) constitutes an essential element of people’s daily lives in 2020 and the world could not be imagined without the use of digital technologies. People do their shopping online, consume media on their electronic devices, rent cars with apps, and meet friends virtually – and this is just a snapshot of the current use of technology. Today, a great part of people’s day-to-day activities rely on digital applications and services. Imagining a world without the internet becomes increasingly difficult – and the number of people online is constantly rising.
However, it appears that this is less valid for democratic, political, and public life. Despite more and more online activities and campaigns possibly impacting political decisions, a great deal of political activity is still happening offline, following traditional and established modes of democratic participation. It was only due to the developments related to COVID-19, that a number of Parliaments explored new ways to digitalise their activities. There is not only unexploited potential for more online activities when it comes to elections (amongst EU Member States, online voting is only possible in Estonia) but also for public administration services.